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Personal Finance in India: How to Plan, Save & Invest?

July 31, 2021

What’s the primary purpose of financial management? To make as much money as possible, right?

We also need it to achieve our personal financial objectives. Like putting money aside for the future, education, purchasing a property, travelling abroad, retirement planning, and so on.

Financial planning is a constantly changing process. It demands constant monitoring and evaluation at each stage but also gives you an advantage over the risks and woes of low money in times of need.

Making an appropriate plan for spending and investing money necessitates careful planning.

It requires effective thinking, research, and budgeting, among other things.

In India, you must be aware that financial planning is a requirement of a successful and financially secure future.

It's very important to plan how you spend, invest, and use your money if you want to reach financial stability and strength. 

Why plan your personal finances and what’s the purpose behind it? 

Well, why not? If you’re under the impression that it’s only for the rich and wealthy, you might be wrong.

You don’t have to be rich to draw a good financial plan. Instead, if you plan, you will probably be richer financially than you were when you began.

So, whether you're a monthly allowance college student or an employee, a single person, or even a housekeeper with a few possessions – you need financial planning.

If you’re still not convinced, here are a few areas where managing your finances really helps:


1. Income Management

2. Capital 

3. Better cash flow 

4. Investments 

5. Family Security

6. Valuable knowledge 

7. Savings for emergencies

8. Ongoing support 


Planning & Prioritise these under Financial Management


The first step in Financial Management is Planning. You should focus and prioritise a few areas under this: 


  1. Setting your financial goals


Setting realistic financial objectives, both short- and long-term, is critical to ensuring your financial security in the future.

It not only puts you in charge of your money and, by extension, your future life, but it also offers you a greater understanding of how to best manage your costs so that you may achieve your set goals ahead of schedule.

You're more likely to go beyond your budget if you don't have any goals, so the first step to avoid running out of money when you really need it is to set reasonable goals based on your financial situation.


  1. Your financial situation


You'll be able to measure where you stand on your journey to financial stability once you've set your short-term, mid-term, and long-term goals.


There are several software alternatives available to download these days that allow you to upload your financial data and get a sense of where you stand; alternatively, you may hire an expert to assist you figure out your current situation.


  1. Tax planning


Taxation is an important financial planning issue. There is no financial planning without considering how an investor manages his/her tax liabilities.

You have to research your finances and look at them from a tax-efficient perspective when you are planning your taxes.


Varying tax exemptions and advantages depending on financial health are permitted to Indian people.

You can save a lot of money by cutting your tax responsibilities when you manage your expenses and your investment optimally.



  1. Your retirement strategy


It may seem too early to plan your retirement, but you can't be 100% sure if your financial situation will remain the same some years or a decade later.

However, it is better early than ever when it comes to financial and retirement planning.

The deployment of a fund will provide financial security and peace of mind for you and your family.


The first stage in pension planning is to determine the retirement age you expect, followed by determining how and where you want to save your money .

If you didn't think about it so much, you don't have to worry about it. Early starting is preferable but never too late and your ship won't be sailing.



  1. Goals for accumulating


Investment planning is recognised as the act of matching your future financial goals and targets with all your accessible resources.

Smart investing enhances our money and can ensure our future by raising living standards.

It also provides an excellent approach to handle income, expenditure, debt and tax obligations, etc.

In order to support investment planning, a good financial plan is needed, it begins with establishing and converting financial goals.

A new investment plan is required for each aim, like marriage, education, family, vacation or emergency.



Saving your Money


Now comes the second part, that’s saving your money. A great way to start saving is by incorporating it into your life as a habit. Here are some other tips for you:


  1. Spend less than you make


It may be difficult for you to move ahead if you spend more than you make no matter how much or how little you make.

Learn how to control yourself and taste what you have already. You can save a lot of money by reducing expenses quickly.


  1. Create a budget to better track your expenditures.


There are a plethora of online tools and mobile apps available to help you set up free budgeting programmes.

All information regarding your incoming and exiting monetary transactions, from all of your accounts, should be included in your budget.

There are several tools and software that allow you to categorise your spending and determine where you need to cut back.

It can be difficult to find out where your money is going and how to reverse it if you don't have a budgeting scheme in place. 



  1. 50/30/20 Rule 


If you have difficulty budgeting and saving, consider using 50/30/20 rules. The aim is to determine your profit accordingly:

  1. 50% on needs such as food, housing, public services and health insurance.
  2. 30% on wishes like food, shopping and hobbies.
  3. 20% of your income, such as an emergency fund, a college fund or a pension scheme, should go to savings.



  1. Avoid Debt 


Each of us follows a high quality of life in the fast-moving environment in which social media controls the choices of life.

We wear the most costly clothes and gems, eat at five-star restaurants, stay at the best hotels, travel by car to SUVs, and with the new introduction update our devices.

Sometimes, those who cannot afford such a lifestyle often also want to "fit in." This has enabled some type of debt to penetrate into our life. 


It is the best approach to manage debt as long as you can, but if you end up being in a debt trap, rest assured you that some damage and lots of support from a financial adviser or debt specialist allows you to easily come out of it.



Investing and Building your Financial Portfolio


A well-kept financial portfolio is crucial to predicting an investor's success today in accordance with the current situation of the financial industry.

Any investor wishing to attain the goals and raise risk tolerance must guarantee that its portfolio fulfils its future capital requirements.

Building your financial portfolio in line with your investment strategy follows a systematic approach to keep your investments growing on an ongoing basis.


India is now a beehive of financial activity with a wide range of different types of investment opportunities. You can just retain cash at home or choose to invest in: 


  • Mutual funds
  • Insurance plans
  • Equity and Stocks
  • Savings and Fixed Deposits
  • Fixed Assets like property, land, equipment, etc.
  • Fixed deposits, Public Provident Fund (PPF) and small savings accounts
  • Commodities
  • Digital Gold


You should consider parameters like Suitability, Cost of Investment, Risk Involved and Return Potential in each one of them. When making investment decisions, bear the following in mind:


  • After conducting thorough study, carefully select investments
  • Don't be fooled by quick-money scams that promise big profits in a short period of time
  • Periodically review your stock and mutual fund holdings
  • Consider the tax implications of the investment returns you generate
  • Keep things simple and steer clear of sophisticated investments that you are unfamiliar with


To summarise, financial planning is the only way for an individual to comprehend, account for, and carefully manage his or her income and investments.


It will enable you to live comfortably and provide a good standard of living for your dependents, allowing them to enjoy the finer things in life while still saving liberally for their own worry-free retirement.

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